Category: Surveying

Levelling is known as the Elevation measurements involve measurements in vertical plane. It may be defined as the art of determining the elevations of given points above or below a datum line or establishing given points of required heights above or below the datum line. TERMS USED IN LEVELLING Before......

Compass is an instrument which can be used to measure the direction of a survey line with respect to magnetic north-south. The magnetic north-south direction which is the reference direction is called meridian (reference direction) and the angle between the line and the meridian is called bearing. Use of compass......

The most commonly used plane table It consists of a well-seasoned wooden table Top mounted on a tripod. The table top can rotate about vertical axis freely. Whenever necessary table can be clamped in the desired orientation. The table can be levelled by adjusting tripod legs. ACCESSORIES OF A PLANE......

Measurement of distances using chain or tape is termed as chaining. This is the accurate and commonly employed method in surveying: These instruments can be classified as [1] chains [2] Steel band [3] Tapes   [1] CHAINS The chains are composed of 100 pieces of 4 mm diameter galvanised mild......

Setting out is the process of developing the physical positions of corners and walls of a building, and it’s done by transferring dimensions from the layout plan. Setting out clearly defines the outline of the excavations and the centre line of the walls, so that the construction can be carried out according to......

Surveying is the art of determining the relative positions of different objects on the surface of the earth by measuring the horizontal distances between them, and by preparing a map to any suitable scale. Thus, in discipline, the measurements are taken only in the horizontal plane. The aim of surveying......