Different Types of Mortar and Tests on Mortar

Mortar is an intimate mixture of binding material, fine aggregate and water. When water is added to the dry mixture of binding material and the inert material, binding material develops the property that binds not only the inert material but also the surrounding stones and bricks. If the cement is the binding material, then the mortar is known as cement mortar. Other mortars commonly used are lime mortar and mud mortar. The inert material used is sand. Various tests conducted on mortars is also explained.

 

TYPES OF MORTAR

[1] CEMENT MORTAR

For preparing mortar, first a mixture of cement and sand is made thoroughly mixing them in dry condition. Water is gradually added and mixed with shovels.

The Mortar has different mix Proportion depending on where the mortal will be applied.

Wall plastering = 1:6
Ceiling plastering = 1:4
External wall plastering = 1:4
Internal wall plastering = 1:5
Repair wall plastering = 1:3

All in {Cement : Sand}

PROPERTIES OF CEMENT MORTAR

The following are the important properties of cement mortar:

[1] When water is added to the dry mixture of cement and sand, hydration of cement starts and it binds sand particles and also the surrounding surfaces of masonry and concrete.

[2] A mix richer than 1:3 is prone to shrinkage.

[3] Well proportioned mortar provides impervious surface.

[4] Leaner mix is not capable of closing the voids in sand and hence the plastered surface is porous.

[5] The strength of mortar depends upon the proportion of cement and sand.

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USES OF CEMENT MORTAR

[1] To bind masonry units like stone, bricks, cement blocks.

[2] To plaster slab and walls make them impervious.

[3] To give neat finishing to walls and concrete works.

[4] For pointing masonry joints.

[5] For preparing building blocks.

[6] As a filler material in ferro cement works.

[7] To fill joints and cracks in walls.

[8] As a filler material in stone masonry.

 

[2] LIME MORTAR

Fat lime and hydraulic limes are used for making lime mortar. If fat lime is used sand mixed is normally 2 to 3 times its volume. If hydraulic lime is used sand mixed is only 2 times the volume of lime.

Lime is prepared by pounding, if quantity required is small or by grinding, if the required quantity is more Pounding: For pounding pits are formed in hard grands. The size of pit is usually 1.80 m long, 0.4 m wide and 0.5 m deep. It is provided with lining of bricks or stones.

Lime and sand dry mixed with required proportion is placed in the pit. Small quantity of water is added at intervals. In each interval the mix is pounded with wooden pounders and mortar is turned up and down. The process is continued till uniform colour and desired consistency is achieved.

Grinding: This is the better way of getting good mix. The grinding may be carried out in bullock driven grinding mill or in power driven grinding mill. It consists of a circular trench of radius 3 to 4.5 m, 0.3 m wide and 0.4 m deep.

A wooden shaft pivoted at centre carries a stone wheel of width just 50 mm to 100 mm less than that of trench. Bullock drive this wheel in the trench for grinding mortar. The dry mix is placed in the trench. Water is added gradually and bullock driven stone wheels grind the mix. A worker turns the mix up and down regularly. This method of preparing mortar needs 6 hours and can produce about 1.7 m³ of mortar.

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Lime mortar is also having good grinding property. Fat lime mortar is used for plastering while hydraulic lime mortar is used for masonry construction. This mortar was considered cheap in olden days and was commonly used in small towns. However the cumbersome process of preparation and ease in availability of cement in market has almost replaced the use of lime mortar.

 

[3] MUD MORTAR

Clay lumps are collected and are wetted with water and allowed to mature for 1 or 2 days. It is kneeded well until it attains required consistency. Sometimes fibrous materials like gobber is added in the mix.

It prevents cracks in the plaster. If plaster is to be used for outer walls, it is sprayed or painted with Bitumen. It is cheap mortar. Its durability is less. It is normally used for the construction of temporary sheds and cheap houses in rural areas.

Some other Types of Special mortal are Below

[4] CEMENT CLAY MORTAR

Quality of clay mortar can be improved by adding cement to the mix. Normal proportion of clay to cement is 1:1. It maintains the economy to some extent and there is sufficient improvements in the durability of mud-mortar.

[5] GAUGED MORTAR

It is the mortar obtained by adding cement to lime mortar. The usual proportion of cement, lime and sand are 1:1:6, 1:2:9 and 1:3:12. This mortar is to be used within half an hour after mixing cement. Obviously, it is cheaper than cement mortar and its quality is between that of cement mortar and lime mortar.

[6] DECORATIVE MORTAR

These mortars are obtained by using coloured cement. They are used to give pleasant appearance to outer walls.

 

DIFFERENT TESTS ON MORTAR

The following tests are conducted on the prepared mortars to ensure their quality:

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[1] CRUSHING TEST

This test is carried out on a brick work with the mortar. This brick work is crushed in a compression testing machine and the load is noted down. Then the crushing strength is obtained as load divided by cross-sectional area.

Crushing Strength = Load / Cross-secrional Area

[2] TENSILE STRENGTH TEST

The mortar prepared is placed in a mould of bricket which has central cross-sectional area as 38 mm × 38 mm. After curing the briquette is pulled under the grips of tensile testing machine. The ultimate load noted. Then the tensile strength of mortar is load divided by the load divided by the central cross-sectional area.

Tensile Strength = Load / Cross-secrional Area

[3] ADHESIVE TEST

Two bricks are joined together with mortar to be tested as shown in The upper brick is suspended from an overhead support. A board is hung from the lower brick. Then weights are added to the board till the bricks separate. The adhesive strength is the load divided by area of contact.

Adhesive Strength = Load / Area of Contact

 

 

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